This is the README file for the distribution of ESS version 18.10
ESS is a GNU Emacs and XEmacs mode for interactive statistical programming and data analysis. Languages supported: the S family (S, S-PLUS and R), SAS, BUGS/JAGS and Stata. ESS grew out of the desire for bug fixes and extensions to S-mode and SAS-mode as well as a consistent union of their features in one package.
Installation instructions are provided in sections for both Unix and Windows; see below.
The current development team is led by Martin Maechler since August 2004. Former project leader A.J. (Tony) Rossini (email@example.com) did the initial port to XEmacs and has been the primary coder. Martin Maechler (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Kurt Hornik (Kurt.Hornik@R-project.org) have assisted with the S family and XLispStat. Stephen Eglen (email@example.com) has worked mostly on R support. Richard M. Heiberger (firstname.lastname@example.org) has assisted with S/S-PLUS development for Windows. Richard and Rodney A. Sparapani (email@example.com) have done much of the work improving SAS batch and interactive support. Rodney has also extended ESS to support BUGS/JAGS and has an interest in improving Stata support.
We are grateful to the previous developers of S-mode (Doug Bates, Ed Kademan, Frank Ritter, David M. Smith), SAS-mode (Tom Cook) and Stata-mode (Thomas Lumley).
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The source and documentation of ESS is free software. You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later version.
ESS is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License in the file COPYING in the same directory as this file for more details.
All recent released versions are meant to be release-quality versions. While some new features are being introduced, we are cleaning up and improving the interface. We know that there are many remaining opportunities for documentation improvements, but all contributors are volunteers and time is precious. Patches or suggested fixes with bug reports are much appreciated!
ESS is most likely to work with current/recent versions of the following statistical packages: R/S-PLUS, SAS, Stata, OpenBUGS and JAGS.
ESS supports current, and recent, stable versions of GNU Emacs (currently, 24.3 or higher; alpha/beta/pre-release versions are NOT SUPPORTED).
Due to XEmacs lacking some features that ESS requires, ESS support of XEmacs ended with ESS 12.04-4.
To build the PDF documentation, you will need a version of TeX Live or texinfo that includes texi2dvi (BEWARE: recent TeX Live, and some texinfo RPMs, do NOT include texi2dvi).
You may download the latest ESS release source code from the ESS web page or StatLib
Developers and experimentation on ESS mainly happens through git. ESS is currently hosted on Github: https://github.com/emacs-ess/ESS.
You may install ESS from Emacs by using
M-x package-install if
you add the third-party package archive MELPA to
package-archives. Instructions on how to do so are found on
MELPA’s website. MELPA also hosts
MELPA-stable with stable ESS builds. You may choose between MELPA with
the latest and greatest features (and bugs) or MELPA-stable, which may
lag a bit behind but should be more stable.
Alternatively, many GNU/Linux distributions package and distribute ESS, check with your distribution to see if this is the case. You may need to add the above require statement to your configuration file in order to activate ESS.
You will need to add
to your Emacs configuration file in order to activate ESS. Instead of activating ESS when Emacs starts up (which can take some time), you can load ESS when needed by loading the autoload file:
Users of the nonfree operating systems macOS and Windows may be interested in downloading the Emacs binary by Vincent Goulet:
Users who wish to install ESS from the source code may follow these instructions:
See Latest Version in ESS
We will refer to the location of the ESS source files as /path/to/ESS/ hereafter.
cd /path/to/ESS/ make
Without this step, info, pdf and html documentation and reference card will not be available. Uncompiled ESS will also run slower.
You may make ESS available to all users of a machine by installing it
site-wide. To do so, run
make install. You might need
The files are installed into
/usr/share/emacs directory. For this step to
run correctly on macOS, you will need to adjust the PREFIX
path in Makeconf. The necessary code and instructions are
commented in that file.
If you have performed the
make install step from above, add:
to your Emacs configuration file. Otherwise, you should add /path/to/ESS/lisp/ to your Emacs load path and then load ESS with the following lines in your Emacs configuration file:
(add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/ESS/lisp/") (require 'ess-site)
ess-site.el loads all ESS languages. If you only want to load support for R, you may use
instead of ess-site. Note that support for loading only part of ESS is recommended only for experienced Emacs users.
Instead of requiring all or part of ESS at startup, you may want to load the autoloads file to defer loading. See above.
To start an S session on Unix or on Windows when you use the Cygwin bash shell, simply type M-x S RET.
To start an S session on Windows when you use the MSDOS prompt shell, simply type M-x S+6-msdos RET.
Changes and New Features in 18.10:
package-installdoes), you should not need to
(require 'ess-site)at all, as autoloads should automatically load ESS when it is needed (e.g. the first time an R buffer is opened). In order to defer loading your ESS config, you may want to do something like
(with-require-after-load "ess" <ess-config-here>)in your Emacs init file. Users of the popular
use-packageEmacs package can now do
(use-package ess :defer t)to take advantage of this behavior.
C-c [letter]bindings have been removed. This affects
C-c h, which was bound to
C-c f, which was bound to
C-c h, which was bound to
ess-r-package-use-dirnow works with any mode. This sets the working directory to the root of the current package including for example C or C++ files within
inferior-ess-replace-long+. This strips the entire + + sequence.
prog-mode. In the next release, ESS modes will use
define-derived-modeso that each mode will have (for example) its own hooks and keymaps.
lintrpackage to use it. Customizable options include
Makevarsfiles open with
ess-write-to-dribble. This allows users to disable the dribble (
*ESS*) buffer if they wish.
*-program-namevariables have been renamed to
*-program. Users who previously customized e.g.
inferior-ess-R-program-namewill need to update their customization to
inferior-ess-R-program. These variables are treated as risky variables.
ess-smart-S-assignwas renamed to
ess-insert-assign. It provides similar functionality but for any keybinding, not just ‘_‘. For instance if you bind it to ‘;‘, repeated invokations cycle through between assignment and inserting ‘;‘.
C-c C-=is now bound to
ess-cycle-assignby default. See the documentation for details. New user customization option
ess-assign-listcontrols which assignment operators are cycled.
ess-eval-regionfor details. This only works on Emacs 25.1 and newer.
Many improvements to fontification:
ess-R-modifiers. See the documentation for details.
inis now only fontified when inside a
forconstruct. This avoids spurious fontification, especially in the output buffer where ‘in‘ is a commond English word.
ess-R-keywordsin your Emacs configuration file after loading ESS (i.e. in the
@paramkeywords now supports comma-separated parameters.
stop()are no longer fontified as keyword if not followed by an opening parenthesis. The same holds for search path modifiers like
%op%operators and backquoted function definitions.
ess-font-lock-toggle-keywordcan be called interactively. This command asks with completion for a font-lock group to toggle. This functionality is equivalent to the font-lock menu.
Notable bug fixes:
prettify-symbols-modeno longer breaks indentation. This is accomplished by having the pretty symbols occupy the same number of characters as their non-pretty cousins. You may customize the new variable
ess-r-prettify-symbolsto control this behavior.
Obsolete libraries, functions, and variables:
ess-r-args.ellibrary has been obsoleted and will be removed in the next release. Use
eldoc-modeinstead, which is on by default.
ess-smart-S-assign-key is now deprecated and will
be removed in the next release. If you would like to continue using
‘_‘ for insterting assign in future releases, please bind
ess-mode-map the normal way.
ess-s-versions-listis obsolete and ignored. Use
ess-s-versionsinstead. You may pass arguments by starting the inferior process with the universal argument.
Changes and New Features in 17.11:
(require 'ess-stata-mode)in your init file. This is for experienced Emacs users as this requires setting up autoloads for
.Rfiles manually. We will keep maintaining
ess-sitefor easy loading of all ESS features.
ess-r-package-use-dir. It sets the working directory of the current process to the current package directory.
ess-r-package-source-rootscontains package sub-directories which are searched recursively during the file lookup point. Directories in
ess-tracebug-search-pathare now also searched recursively.
R/directory. This way ESS will not attempt to update function definitions from a package if you are working from e.g. a test file.
Changes and New Features in 16.10:
%op%operators are recognised as sexp. This is useful for code navigation, e.g. with C-M-f and C-M-b.
ess-roxy-fold-examplesto non-nil to automatically fold the examples field when you open a buffer.
ess-roxy-fontify-examplesto non-nil to try it out.
ess-r-devtools-askbound to C-c C-w C-a. It asks with completion for any devtools command that takes
ess-r-package-modeis now activated in non-file buffers as well.
Bug fixes in 16.10:
Changes and New Features in 16.04:
developerfunctionality has been refactored. The new user interface consists of a single command
ess-r-set-evaluation-envbound by default to C-c C-t C-s. Once an evaluation environment has been set with, all subsequent ESS evaluation will source the code into that environment. By default, for file within R packages the evaluation environment is set to the package environment. Set
nilto disable this.
ess-r-package-modeThis development mode provides features to make package development easier. Currently, most of the commands are based on the
devtoolspackages and are accessible with C-c C-w prefix. See the documentation of
ess-r-package-modefunction for all available commands. With C-u prefix each command asks for extra arguments to the underlying devtools function. This mode is automatically enabled in all files within R packages and is indicated with
[pkg:NAME]in the mode-line.
Bug fixes in 16.04:
Please send bug reports, suggestions etc. to ESSfirstname.lastname@example.org, or post them on our github issue tracker
The easiest way to do this is within Emacs by typing
This also gives the maintainers valuable information about your installation which may help us to identify or even fix the bug.
If Emacs reports an error, backtraces can help us debug the problem. Type "M-x set-variable RET debug-on-error RET t RET". Then run the command that causes the error and you should see a *Backtrace* buffer containing debug information; send us that buffer.
Note that comments, suggestions, words of praise and large cash donations are also more than welcome.
There is a mailing list for discussions and announcements relating to ESS. Join the list by sending an e-mail with "subscribe ess-help" (or "help") in the body to email@example.com; contributions to the list may be mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Rest assured, this is a fairly low-volume mailing list.
The purposes of the mailing list include